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Siribinha is a community of artisanal fishers comprising ca. 500 inhabitants. The community was relatively isolated up to the 1990s, since prior to that there was no road connecting it to nearby villages and cities. Despite the emergence of small-scale tourism starting from the mid-1990s, Siribinha is still predominantly a fishing community, where fishing and shellfish gathering constitute the main economic activity of the majority of the community members.
Artisanal fishing in the north coast of Bahia is characterized by family work, where members of the family are variously involved in the activity of catching and processing the catch, especially shellfish. In Siribinha, as well as in other Brazilian fishing communities, fishing is typically a male activity, while shellfishing, which comprises the activity of gathering mollusks and crustaceans, is carried out primarily by women and children .
To understand how members of the community categorize fish and to what extent the categories are shared across the community, we carried out triad tasks (or triad tests) [15, 34]. The triad task allows us to derive a consensual cultural model without assuming that such a model exists beforehand . For this purpose, we randomly selected 45 people that took part in the free list task (15 fishermen, 15 shellfish gatherers/fisherwomen, and 15 other community members) and solicited their participation on the triad tasks. The triad tasks were conducted between October 2018 and January 2019.
Follow-up studies could perhaps examine if this could be related to direct contact with fish (and if so, if women would have a greater knowledge of shellfish species than men). Tng et al. , for example, performed an ethnobotanical study in Siribinha and found that female and male traditional experts possess a different set of plant use knowledge, with women generally citing more food and medicinal plants, and men citing more wood and fiber plants. Therefore, intracultural variation in plant knowledge and probably fish knowledge in Siribinha is also related to social role and type of activity.
Blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) have a central ecological importance in intertidal regions  by increasing seabed roughness and providing habitat substrate supporting biodiversity of infauna [9, 28, 49]. Mytilus edulis are widely distributed across northern Europe, with high densities found off the coasts of Ireland, Wales and France . Mussels are extensively cultivated for food , with mussels contributing around 95% of the production and 80% of imputed value to UK shellfish aquaculture, with one third of the industry based in North Wales . M. edulis have been successfully cultivated in North Wales for over 50 years (see Fig. 1), the area being suitable due to strong tidal currents through the Menai Strait, that promote the flow of nutrients and water renewal [24, 68]. Mussel production here is based on bottom culture, which uses wild spat collected throughout the Irish Sea that is re-laid on the North Wales beds. Mussel farmers experience interannual variability in wild spat, which directly influences their harvest (pers. com. Trevor Jones), like during the year 2014 (1100 tonnes) and 2018 (zero). It is therefore important to predict the likely dispersal of mussel larvae for efficient stock management and to understand the contribution of the North Wales mussel beds to the wider ecosystem.
Our findings, coupled with mussel farmers observations suggest that the PTM represents to some extent mussel larval dispersal in the Irish Sea. It means that some M. edulis are potentially distributed in the upper water column and influenced by wind-driven currents [30, 50, 76]. Despite this study focuses on two contrasted year, it would be interesting to correlate more data from mussel farmers on harvest with wind forecast. In addition, our results suggest that the connectivity between commercial mussel bed located in North Wales and Morecambe Bay (i.e., the main source of spat for mussel shellfisheries) only exist under specific conditions: mussel travelling at the surface with a southwesterly wind such as that occurred in 2014. However, as we simulated five independent PLDs, from 2 to 6 weeks. Each with a competency period of one (final) week, our results for the longer PLD simulations could potentially over-estimate the connectivity, as larvae could have a longer competency period and hence settle before the final week. Weather variability between 2014 and 2018 might have influenced the timing of spawning and the amount of gamete released in the water column, which could have influenced observation on settlement made by mussel farmers in Morecambe Bay in 2018 and 2014 [4, 43].
Foods that may contain fish proteins include:6,7 barbecue sauce, bouillabaisse, Caesar salads and dressings, caponata (a Sicilian eggplant relish), etouffee, fish oil, fish sauce, fish sticks, fritto misto, gelatin (often made from fish skin and bones), gumbo, imitation or artificial fish or shellfish (e.g., surimi, sea legs, sea sticks), jambalaya, kedgeree (a fish and rice dish), paella, stocks, soups, and Worcestershire sauce.
However, just because you're allergic to fish doesn t necessarily mean you're also allergic to shellfish.5 But given the risk for cross-contamination between shellfish and fish, exert caution when consuming shellfish that may have been exposed to fish prior to or during cooking or preparation.5,7 In addition, there's a high risk of cross-contamination with other fish and shellfish species in environments such as fish markets and supermarkets.7 59ce067264